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A case study of Jack (Emerson and Dearden, 2013) is a good example of this.
Ten year old Jack had very limited communication despite years of education and provision of AAC means such as signs and symbols.
Interventions for people with motor impairments can be guided by the principle of the “least dangerous assumption” (Donnellan, 1984).
To illustrate, if a verbal instruction is not responded to, rather than coming to any conclusions about a person's level of understanding or willingness to conform, many possible explanations for the lack of response are systematically tested through a “trial and error” approach.
The use of FC is problematic, not just because of doubts about the origins of any ensuing communication but also due to the extent to which the technique builds dependence on the facilitator rather than independence.
Although people are reported to have reached independence through intensive practice with gradually faded physical support (Beukelman and Mirenda, 1998; Broderick and Kasa-Hendrickson, 2001) many FC users remain reliant on the facilitator to produce coherent communication. doi: 10.1111/1469-7610.00018 Pubmed Abstract | Pubmed Full Text | Cross Ref Full Text Minshew, N.
However, the physical support aspect of FC may not be necessary to teach pointing, and could be avoided.
It is contested here that many individuals can be helped toward better communication through aspects of the original approach of FC, without physically facilitating their pointing but rather by specifically teaching pointing at an early age. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2002.1205 Pubmed Abstract | Pubmed Full Text | Cross Ref Full Text Milne, E., Swettenham, J., Hansen, P., Campbell, R., Jeffries, H., and Plaisted, K. High motion coherence thresholds in children with autism. Researchers have begun to consider the link between ability, as measured by I. Q., and the presence, to varying degrees, of motor impairments (Mari et al., 2003) as well as the link between sensory-motor difficulties and the development of communication (Iverson and Wozniak, 2007). The direction of causation is not yet clear, i.e., whether motor difficulties are an aspect of cognitive impairments, or conversely whether being born with a motor impairment, particularly when it is not recognized as such, inhibits the development of cognitive and communication skills. Awareness of difficulties in motor planning and execution in children and adults with autism and the potential benefits of teaching pointing were highlighted through the Facilitated Communication (FC) controversy (Biklen and Cardinal, 1997; Mostert, 2001). Motor impairments have so far mostly been considered in terms of their recognition and diagnosis but are also of considerable relevance to intervention, at all stages of development. “He's not really a reader (horizontal ellipsis)”: perspectives on supporting literacy development in individuals with autism.Tags: Adult Dating, affair dating, sex dating