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(It is the natural law which nature has taught all animals.--"In IV Sent.", dist. they are fixed by heredity, and they await the analysis and the improvements of nascent reason.With the advent of man, in his rudest state--however he came to be in that state, whether by ascent or descent--there dawns a conscience, which, in the development theory, will have to pass through many stages.

Useful actions are performed, not apparently pleasurable in themselves, yet with good in the sequel which cannot have been foreseen.

The care of the animal for its young, the provision for the need of its future offspring is a kind of foreshadowed sense of duty. Thomas is bold to follow the terminology of Roman lawyers, and to assert a sort of morality in the pairing and the propagating of the higher animals: "ius naturale est quod natura omnia animalia docuit". 4.) Customs are formed under the pressures and the interactions of actual living.

The immature mind must be given external sanctions before it can reach the inward.

Its earliest glimmering of duty cannot be clear light: it begins by distinguishing conduct as nice or as nasty and naughty: as approved or disapproved by parents and teachers, behind whom in a dim way stands the oft-mentioned God, conceived, not only in an anthropomorphic, but in a nepiomorphic way, not correct yet more correct than Caliban's speculations about Setebos.

The Persians stood for virtue against vice in their support of Ahura Mazda against Ahriman ; and it was an excellence of theirs to rise above "independent ethics " to the conception of God as the rewarder and the punisher.

They even touched the doctrine of Christ's saying, "What doth it profit a man if he gain the whole world, and lose his own soul ?

At first its categories of right and wrong are in a very fluid condition, keeping no fixed form, and easily intermixing, as in the chaos of a child's dreams, fancies, illusions, and fictions. 262.) The grasp of experience widens and power of analysis increases, till, in a people like the Greeks, we come upon thinkers who can distinctly reflect on human conduct, and can put in practice the gnothi seauton (know thyself), so that henceforth the method of ethics is secured for all times, with indefinite scope left for its better and better application.

The requirements of social life, which becomes the great moralizer of social action, are continually changing, and with them ethics varies its adaptations. "The lines on which custom is formed are determined in each society by the pressures, the thousand interactions of those forces of individual character and social relationship, which never cease remoulding until they have made men's loves and hates, their hopes and fears for themselves and their children, their dread of unseen agencies, their jealousies, their resentments, their antipathies, their sociability and dim sense of mutual dependence all their qualities good and bad, selfish and sympathetic, social and anti-social." (Op. "Here we have reached the level of philosophical or spiritual religions, systems which seek to concentrate all experience in one focus, and to illuminate all morality from one centre, thought, as ever, becoming more comprehensive as it becomes more explicit". 266.) What is said of the race is applied to the individual, as in him customary rules acquire ethical character by the recognition of distinct principles and ideals, all tending to a final unity or goal, which for the mere evolutionist is left very indeterminate, but for the Christian has adequate definition in a perfect possession of God by knowledge and love, without the contingency of further lapses from duty.

The Hebrews had no formal psychology, though Delitzsch has endeavoured to find one in Scripture. Of anthropologists some do and some do not accept the Biblical account of man's origin; and the former class, admitting that Adam's descendants might soon have lost the traces of their higher descent, are willing to hear, with no pledge of endorsing, what the latter class have to say on the assumption of the human development even from an animal ancestry, and on the further assumption that in the use of evidences they may neglect sequence of time and place. It is a conjectural story, very like what other anthropologists offer for what it is worth and not for fully certified science.

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